谈英语访谈节目中话语标记语and then的语用功能

减小字体 增大字体 作者:刘海洋  来源:www.zhonghualunwen.com  发布时间:2012-11-17 10:44:28

二、理论背景及and then的衔接功能

范·戴克(van Dijk,1977;戴炜栋等,1997)从衔接关系的角度将英语中的话语标记语分为以下五种情况:(1)连词,包括并列连词和从属连词;(2)部分副词,主要包括作为句子附加状语的一些副词或副词短语;(3)部分介词,主要指那些具有连词性质的复合式介词,比如dueto、as a result等;(4)具有插入语性质的一些词语,比如you know、you see等;(5)部分固定的习语或句型,比如toconclude、it follows that等。从以上分类可见,这些衔接词的功能实际上已经超出了一般意义上的句法、语义连接功能,它们是对话语单位和意义起连接作用的一些词语或结构。

戴炜栋等(1997)通过口语和书面语例句,介绍过英语中常用衔接词的一些主要用法。从语法特征来看,衔接词分为副词或副词短语、连词或复合连词、介词或复合介词、固定句型等,比如英语中的you know、you see、in otherwords等,汉语中的“换句话说”、“你知道”、“听说”等。他们从语义的角度将常用的衔接词分为评价、澄清、让步、信任、否定、对比、证实、换题、引证、建议、总结等22类。

Civon( 1993:137)曾明确指出:在连贯的自然话语中,任何一个小句,不管同它所在语境的关系多么松弛,都会以某种形式依托它所在的语境而存在。独立于语境而存在的任何小句都是语言学家们所炮制的幻想。在连贯的自然话语中,无论在主题方面还是语用方面,任何一个小句,只要是独立于语境而存在,均可被看成是话语信息的中断或不连贯。因此,在连贯的自然话语中,任何形式的小句都依托它所在的语境而存在,这是一件必然的事。基于Givon(1993)的理论,任何形式的话语从本质上讲都是一个连贯的整体,这种连贯可以体现在多个层面,比如指代连贯,时间连贯,空间连贯,行动连贯,言语行为连贯,观点连贯等。笔者通过语料分析发现,在英语访谈节目的言语交际中,and then不仅仅是用来表示信息的先后关系,而且还可以用来连接两个并列成分,其功能相当于and;或是为了构建话语的连贯而采取的策略;或是伴随话语信息的间断而出现,其功能主要是用来缓解话语信息的间断。笔者选取了国外英语访谈节目的实际语料,试从以下几个方面来探讨and then的语用功能。

三、语料分析

1.在言语交际中,and then可以用来表示时间、言语行为等的先后关系,使这些信息处于前后相接的顺序中,这是其常用功能。例如:

(1)1’m kind of like the morning person so I get here at 6:00 and then I meet with parents or anyone that comes really early because they have to leave to go to work.

(2) So they may have moved to Mexico or moved to Chi-cago or wherever and we have to figure out where they went and then document.

(3) But I certainly would not think it would be appropri-ate to go into a race and to give your all to campaign for gover-nor and then in the January inauguration time period, to standup and say, well,I have now decided to go for a national of-fce, and I´m going to go fll-time campaigning for president.

(4) so we´ll end up going and talking to their managers of their apartment, do you know where they moved to, do you know where they went and then try to find them so that-----

2.除了上述常用功能,and then在言语交际中可以用来表示并列关系,传达的信息不在于谁先谁后,其功能相当于并列连词and。例如:

(5) LAMB: What kind of subsidies?

SODERBERC: Students receive free breakfast, lunchand we have a snack during the day. We also receive extramoney for books and then some other programs that are in thatalso.

(6) LAMB: What´s a?explain how the day starts herewhen you get here and then what kind of a team do you havein order to get the kids in the classes and keep things in or-der.

(7) And then we have one that usually helps uith lockout and then we have two that kind of sweep the campus just tofind kids that are meandering around, or got a pass and aretaking 20~30 minutes to get where they need to do and to move kids along.

(8) LAMB: And you have doctors or nurses or Pas?

SODERBERG: We have?we have two nurse practition-ers, we have a doctor that comes part time and we have a den-tist?two dentists that come part time, and then we have afull-time social worker and a psychologist that comes parttime.

3.在言语交际中,交际双方的信息交流有时可能同时在几个不同的层面间转换和展开,比如从言语行为转向内心思考、从概括综述转向具体阐述等。不同层面间的信息转换势必会在一定程度上影响话语的连贯性,于是说话人或听话人在表述自己的观点时,为了缓解由此而造成的信息间断,可以使用and then以增加话语的连贯性。例如:

(9) And we have a security team of guys on our campus and then all of our vice principals and our principal we all arein different areas and then we make? get kids into class and encourage them to get going. And then once the final bell rings….And then we have in-school suspensions if they failto follow up and make up their time.

(10)And then some things, of course,1 would never getthrough, no matter how many years I stayed and battled away,1 would never get them through.

(11) And if they’re happy where they are and if theyfeel comfortable then they usually stay. And then?and thenbut there are groups?we´ ve had some groups that they’vedecided they´d go out to El Cajon or different areas. And theytend to go where commuruties where they feel the most com-fort.

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Tags:语用功能

作者:刘海洋
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