On Film Subtitles Translation of The Foundingof a Republic under Adaptation Theory

减小字体 增大字体 作者:佚名  来源:www.zhonghualunwen.com  发布时间:2010-05-24 16:24:29

 [摘 要]Adaptation Theory was established by Jef Verchueren who was the general secretary of International Pragmatics Association in his book Understanding Pragmatics in 2000.In the past,there were researchers studying the film subtitles translation by means of multi-systems theory,descriptive translation theory,functional equivalence theory or relevance theory,but they rarely translate from the perspective of adaptation theory.This paper is to analyze the film subtitles translation under adaptation theory and the author will focus on the Founding of a Republic which a representative film wildly accepted at home and abroad.This paper will mainly discuss that Film subtitles translation must in conformity with the specific communicative context of the target language and culture which will make the subtitles easy to understand and promote the Chinese culture to the world.
  [关键词]film subtitles translation adaptation theory communicative context
  Ⅰ.Definition of Film Subtitles Translation and Its Translation Constraints
  Now there are a variety of concepts on the subtitles translation.For example,"A subtitles is a printed statement or fragment of dialogue appearing on the screen between the scenes of a silent motion picture or appearing as a translation at the bottom of the screen during the scenes of a motion picture or television show in a foreign language."
  Subtitles translation has its own personality as well as the common characters.Subtitles translation is confined to technical and contextual constraints.The technical constraints mainly refer to the space and time constraints.
  Ⅱ.Verschueren's Adaptation Theory
  The adaptation theory is put forward in Understanding Pragmatics published in 2000 by Verschueren who is the general secretary of International Pragmatics Society.Understanding Pragmatics is composed of five chapters which provide comprehensive and clear exposition to the adaptation theory.Using language must consist of the continuous making of linguistic choices,consciously or unconsciously,for language-internal(i.e.structural)and/ or language-external reasons.These choices can be suited at any level of linguistic form:phonetic/phonological,morphological,syntactic,lexical and semantic.Language user was able to make all the appropriate choices because language has three properties,variability,negotiability and adaptability.
  Adaptation includes for aspects,adaptation of language structure,adaptation of context,dynamic adaptation and degrees of salience.Four aspects are related to each other as a continuum of the methodology of pragmatics.The so-called dynamic adaptation refers to adaptation made in the process of language choices between the language context and language structure.
  This paper mainly focuses on the communicative context.
  Ⅲ.Film Subtitles Translation under Adaptation Theory
  Communicative context includes the mental world,social world and physical world,so the film subtitles translation should be adaptive to the mentioned world.
 (1)Adaptation to the Mental World
  As for the mental world,it includes participant's personality,emotion,desire,intention and other cognitive and emotional factors.In verbal communication,the communicator should always be adaptive to psychological world and choose the right topic and suitable expression.Otherwise it will lead to communication disruptions or fail to meet the purpose of communication,resulting in pragmatic failure.Psychological world relates to the heart of two sides that is why they choose such a language.Psychological world is closely related to speaker's culture,it directly affects the speaker's approach to things and it is also inextricably linked with the content of speech.In translation,the translator is an intermediate role between the original authors and readers,it is necessary to conform to the original author's psychological world,but also conform to the reader's psychological expectations in translation.
  (2)Adaptation to the Social World
  Social world refers to social occasions,social environment,social and cultural norms regulating utterers'and interpreters'verbal behaviors.The communicators'speech acts should be confined to some social and cultural norms.That is to say the language choices must meet the various social and cultural requirements which are consistent with the social world in translation.
  毛人凤:必要的时候 个别人 Mao Renfeng:If necessary
  我看能不能清理一下I'll tidy things up a bit
  蒋介石:都是些有声望的人 Jiang Jieshi:These are prestigious men
  你做得不干净if you're sloppy
  国际舆论对我们很不利public opinion overseas will backfire on us
  毛人凤:卑职明白Mao Renfeng:I understand
  《建国大业》 A Founding of a Republic
  "卑职"is used to entitle oneself to express modesty through depreciating oneself to show respect by the speaker.While in English the word I does not have so many implications and even by special language environment the word I still can not express the message of modesty for the pragmatic purpose.Therefore,translate“鄙人” into"I"will cause the information loss. However, as the deliberate pursuit of semantic equivalence and change"I"to"my humble self",although the information seems to be loyal which expressed meaning humility,but it results in pragmatic failures.

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